Site Clover
Site Number 46 CB 40
Culture: Fort Ancient
References:

Clover Site

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Clover Site (46CB40)
U.S. National Register of Historic Places
U.S. National Historic Landmark
Location: Lesage, West Virginia
Governing body: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers
Added to NRHP: April 27, 1992[1]
Designated NHL: April 27, 1992[2]
NRHP Reference#: 92001881

The Clover Site (46CB40) is a Fort Ancient culture archeological site located near Lesage in Cabell County, West Virginia, United States. It is significant for its well-preserved remains of a late prehistoric/protohistoric Native American village. The sites unique assemblage has made it the type site for the Clover Phase of the Madisonville horizon of the Fort Ancient culture. The Fort Ancient culture is believed to be an in situ development of Late Woodland period peoples. The site was declared a National Historic Landmark in 1992.[2] [3]

Description

The site is located 20 miles (32 km) north of Huntington on a high flood terrace of the Ohio River, within the Green Bottom Wildlife Management Area.[4] At 5 acres, it was a large village with a semi-circular layout. It had a centrally located plaza surrounded by habitation areas, very similar to other Fort Ancient sites, although a palisade such as ones found at other sites has yet to be found at Clover. The site once was described as having three raised mound like areas 5 feet (1.5 m) high and 200 feet (61 m) wide, but they can no longer be located.[3] Investigations at the site have produced Native American produced shell-tempered ceramics, stone tools, bone tools, and ornaments. Items of European manufacture, including brass and copper ornaments and glass trade beads have definitively dated the upper levels of the site to the protohistoric period.[4] The artifact assemblages found at the site by avocational archaeologists such as John J. Adams and S.F. Dunett in the 1920s and professional investigations in the 1940s by James B. Griffin, enabled Griffin to propose the Clover Phase of the Madisonville complex that spanned the years 1550 to 1600, a way of identifying this protohistoric time period at other contemporary sites in the region.[3][5] Other investigations were undertaken at the site in the 1980s by Nicholas Freidin of Marshall University, who conducted an archaeological field school there from 1984 to 1988. Items excavated from the site are now part of the John Adams Collection of artifacts curated by the Huntington Museum of Art. [edit] Connection to other sites

Other sites with significant Clover Phase habitations include the Lower Shawneetown Site, the Buffalo Site, the Hardin Village Site, the Madisonville Site, the Rolfe Lee Site, Logan Site and Marmet Village Site. Pottery excavated from many of these different sites, with types including Madisonville Plain, Cordmarked, or Smoothed Cordmarked wares, have a unique feature(a 2-twist direction to the cordage) which is rarely found in pottery from sites to the west of the Clover Site and are relatively common at sites to its east. This suggest that Clover site people maintained closer contact with sites such as Buffalo, Gue Farm, Marmet, and Rolfe Lee than with other sites that were to its west.[4] Other exotic artifacts found at the site, such as shell gorgets associated with the Southeastern Ceremonial Complex, pottery effigy bowls, and figurines show a connection with Mississippian culture villages in what is now eastern Tennessee.

Site Pictures: Clover
History & Reports: Clover Report - Maslowski

Artifacts from Martin Collection:

0413

small shell two holed gorget 1.5" x 1", badly deteriorated ashpit find

0414

shell (claw) pendant 1.75" x .5" ashpit find

0415

drilled tooth (broken and re-drilled) ashpit find

0416

stem of pipe 1" square cross section ashpit find

0417

tubular bead 1.875" ashpit find

0419

antler chisel ash pit find

0461

small effigy head found by Phil Scott 4/1/37

0485

antler spear point 4" long, drilled to a depth of 1" ash pit find by J. M. Scott. His number E-1

0486

split bone awl 3.5" found by J. M. Scott. His number C-4

0740

Clay effigy head, about the size of a walnut, tattoo or paint marks on cheeks found in an ash pit at either Green Bottom or Clover. Same ash pit as 0724

0784

egg shaped object, doesn't show too much sign of work similar to 0600

0785

bone awl 4" ash pit find

0786

bone awl 3" ash pit find

0787

knuckle bone bead 1.375" ash pit find

0788

bone awl 4" ash pit find

0789

bone bead 1.675" ash pit find

0790

claw bead 1.675" broken ash pit find

0791

pottery disc, drilled 1.5" broken

0792

pottery disc 1.375" drilled

0793

bone awl 3" ash pit find

0794

bone awl 3.375" ash pit find

0795

split bone awl 2.5" ash pit

0796

split bone awl 2"

0797

bone needle 2.625"

0798

antler plug 1.125"

0806

hematite ball From John Scott's collection - probably from Kanawha or Putnam as this is where he usually hunted (LAM)
(Scott's catalog number X-6 surface find by E.W. Fetzer at Clover (DHM))

0877

5 split bone awls not cataloged by LAM but marked clover

0878

bone barrel bead - broken not cataloged by LAM but marked clover

0879

fish jaw bone not cataloged by LAM but marked clover

9085

Various points and blades from Clover not cataloged by Lam

A1

Surface find, J. M. Scott

A12

Surface find, J. M. Scott

A13

Surface find, J. M. Scott

A14

Dug up, J. M. Scott

A2

Surface find, J. M. Scott

A3

Surface find, J. M. Scott

A4

Surface find, J. M. Scott

A5

Surface find, J. M. Scott

A6

Surface find, J. M. Scott

A7

Surface find, J. M. Scott

B2

undrilled shell pendant Grave find with 94 cowery shell beads at the foot of an infant, J. M. Scott.

B3

drilled shell pendant Grave of an infant find with 76 cowery shell beads and 3 other pendants , J. M. Scott. (see LAM 0477)

C1

antler chipper Dug up, J. M. Scott

C2

bone awl in or near grave of a child, J. M. Scott

C3

bone awl Dug up, J. M. Scott

C4

bone awl Dug up, J. M. Scott

D1

reddish mottled flint Surface find, J. M. Scott

D2

black flint, broken Surface find, J. M. Scott

D3

black flint Surface find, J. M. Scott

E1

antler point Dug up, J. M. Scott.

L1

notched white pebble In the mouth a small child, grave, J. M. Scott.

L3

effigy head Dug up, J. M. Scott.

p4

bone pin Dug up by J. M. Scott.

r1

river rock rubbing stone Dug up by J. M. Scott.

r2

sandstone sharpening stone Surface find, J. M. Scott

r4

granite hammerstone Surface find by E.W.F.

s1

scraper Surface find, J. M. Scott

s2

scraper Surface find, J. M. Scott

s4

scraper Surface find, J. M. Scott

s5

knife, crude Surface find by E.W.F. (Elmer Fetzer)

t5

animal claw, partly drilled Dug up by J. M. Scott.

x1

pestle Dug up by J. M. Scott.

x2

paint cup Dug up by J. M. Scott.

x3

paint cup Dug up by J. M. Scott.

x5

pendant, unfinished Dug up by J. M. Scott.

x6

game stone Surface find by E.W.F.

x7

pottery sherd Dug up by J. M. Scott. at a depth of 2'